Thursday, August 27, 2020

Directors Duties under the Companies Act 2006

Chiefs Duties under the Companies Act 2006 Official Summary This paper clarifies about the directors’ obligations that is actualized in the Companies Act 2006. It is huge that each chief need to act inside the legitimate standards so as to keep any contest from company’s enthusiasm with their own advantage. In the Companies Act 2006, there are a few obligations that each chief needs to act with the obligations that are given in Section 171 to Section 177. In any case, the chiefs didn't incorporate the obligations while conveying their duty as an executive in an organization. Subsequently, it has made an extraordinary effect numerous perspectives, for example, business rate, economy and others. Question 1 Presentation: Directors’ Duties in Companies Act 2006 In this cutting edge globalization, each organization must have in any event one executive for non-open recorded organization and at any rate two chiefs for open recorded organization as it had referenced under the Companies Act 2006 in Section 154 (Davies, 2007). The explanation of having a chief in each organization is to speak to the organization to act due to the ‘artificial’ lawful elements of the organization. In an organization, the chiefs are the people who speaks to its proprietors to oversee and take care of the issues of an organization. As indicated by the Cornell University Law School (2015), the chiefs of an organization are called as trustees since they are owing the guardian obligations of the organization while the individuals who owes the guardian obligations is called as head. Trustee obligation is an authentic commitment where it act solely in another party’s intrigue, which is where the trustees are speaking to of. In the lawful frameworks of United Kingdom, guardian obligation is the most thorough obligation of care and obligation of dependability in light of the fact that the trustees need to comply with the obligation that had actualized to keep themselves from any beyond reconciliation conditions with their principals or with various fiduciaries’ clients. So as to forestall irreconcilable situation, the Companies Act 2006 has executed a few trustee obligations to the company’s chief that has referenced in areas 171 to 177. Directors’ obligations in Companies Act 2006 In the Company Act 2006, there are a few directors’ obligations that are essential for an executive to act while conveying the obligation of its situation in an organization, which is obligation to act inside their forces, obligation to practice free judgment just as obligation to keep away from irreconcilable circumstances. 2.1 Duty to Act inside Powers This is one of the most significant obligations that each chief of an organization should follow up on. This obligation requires the chiefs to play out their position as needs be with the rights they have allocated by the organization and use it in an appropriate reason to give the eventual benefits to the organization. It is expressed in the Section 171 of Companies Act 2006 that: An executive of an organization must act as per the company’s constitution, and just exercise powers for the reasons for which they are given. Davies (2007) clarifies that the executives of the organization are required to take after all the headings regarding how the company’s endeavors should be sifted through and controlled that are set down in the company’s constitution so as to concur with any imperatives that is set down in the constitution on what practices an association may genuinely take part. In the Section 171 (b), he clarifies that the directors’ forces ought to be used only for the best possible purposes principle. This is to manage the directors’ issues by actualize those forces that the organization wish so as to maintain a strategic distance from any contentions with the organization. Shockingly, the chiefs have misuse their forces and their demonstrations are not in accordance with the company’s constitution. This issue is obviously found on account of Hogg v Cramphorn Ltd[1], where it worries about the appropriation of offers by the executives of Cramphorn Ltd so as to e vade a take-over in the legitimate conviction as they accept that the take-over would not be in light of a legitimate concern for the organization and they need to ensure their situation as a chief in the top managerial staff. Therefore, Mr Hogg, one of the investor of the organization sued the chiefs for being abused of their forces appropriately and the new dissemination of offers was not lawfully dispersed, so the court reported that this circulation of new offers are invalid (Lawteacher, 2015). In any case, there’s a case in Western Australia, which is Whitehouse v Carlton Hotels Pty Ltd[2] where Mr. Charles MacDonald Whitehouse is being sued for giving the offers to his child so as to forestall his former’s spouse or girl to assume control over the organization when he kicks the bucket. For this situation, the High Court of Australia held that Mr Whitehouse doesn't break the directors’ obligation in spite of the fact that he circulated it for ill-advised us e and in this way, the intrigue is excused with costs (UnistudyGuides, 2013). 2.2 Duty to Exercise Independent Judgment Other than that, the chiefs must practice this guardian obligation by utilizing their capacity self-governingly without impact by different interests. So as to forestall the penetrate of this obligation, the chiefs need to rehearse the obligation in the Section 173 of Companies Act 2006, whereby they need to act: as per an understanding which has been appropriately gone into by the organization; or in a manner approved by the company’s constitution. In this trustee obligation, it doesn't intend to give controls on the chiefs to assign or evade them from using the force that is given by the company’s constitution to appoint. As per the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (2015), the executives need to guarantee that they will give the wellbeing altogether for its own organization and investors rather than their own advantages offered by the outsider. Additionally, the chiefs of the organization are permitted to counsel different callings for the lawful exhortation at the same time, an official conclusion must be judge freely without anyone else. It is plainly found on account of Fulham Football Club Ltd. v Cabra Estates plc[3] that the chiefs didn't practice their forces in like manner with its autonomous judgment. This is happened where the Hammersmith and Fulham Borough Council assented to a consent to grow the Craven Cottage, the football ground for lodging purposes and guarantee that they won't limit the headway sometime in the not too distant future or reinforce a necessary buy request. Thus, the executives of Fulham Football Club were held that they penetrated the obligation of practicing autonomous judgment since they had not limited the future exercise of their watchfulness in like manner (Quizlet, 2015). As referenced in the AustLII (2015), the chiefs of the association on account of Thorby v Goldberg[4] was held by the High Court of Australia that they didn't shackle on their tact upon the enthusiasm of the association in going into an agreement. 2.3 Duty to Avoid Conflicts of Interest Besides, this chiefs are incorporated with this obligation so as to avoid in a conditions where an executive can get either an immediate or an aberrant advantages from the contention with the company’s interests. Related of this, the Section 175 of Companies Act 2006 has unmistakably referenced that this obligation isn't disregarded if: the circumstance can't sensibly be viewed as prone to offer ascent to an irreconcilable situation; or the issue has been approved by the executives. In light of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (2015), the penetrate of this obligation is applied when the chiefs take focal points from the outsider as far as property, informal data and openings. Simultaneously, it's anything but a penetrate of obligation in a situation that it is emerge absurdly or it has been affirmed by the executives. Lamentably, the chiefs consistently face the irreconcilable circumstance with the contender, significant investor, or a provider and it has been expanding from years to years. This is on the grounds that the Act doesn't clarified obviously on what is â€Å"interest† or the â€Å"conflict of interest† implies. This issue has indicated plainly on account of Boardman v Phipps[5] where Mr Broadman and Tom Phipps purchase the organization imparts to the affirmation of Mr Fox as they accept that they could turn the organization around. All things considered, Mr Broadman and Tom Phipps didn't altogether gained to all recipients and they have made an incredible benefit with Mr Fox. Accordingly Johnn Phipps has sued them for breaking the obligation to maintain a strategic distance from irreconcilable circumstances (Webstroke Law, 2014). In Australia, the executives are likewise charge for breaking this obligation, which is expressed on account of Chan v Zacharia [6]where the High Court of Australia was held that Dr Chan has penetrated the obligation. This is on the grounds that Dr Chan acted to his greatest advantage rather than real the enthusiasm of the organization all in all (Oxbridge Notes, 2014). End: Prevention as opposed to fix? All in all, it is fundamental for each chief to act inside the directors’ obligations that is expressed in the Companies Act 2006 to guarantee that they don't break the obligation when complete their duty to an organization. There are a few obligations that is significant among the entirety of the directors’ obligations, which is the obligation to act inside forces, obligation to practice free judgment just as obligation to keep away from irreconcilable circumstances. It is referenced in the LawTeacher (2015) that those chiefs who have penetrated the obligations will made the organization have money related misfortunes and simultaneously, the executives will likewise be charged for, for example, detainment, fines, and business results. The chiefs will likewise be banished from its situation under the Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986 in the Section 6 in the event that they penetrate the directors’ obligations. I

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Equity Research Report Hul

Value RESEARCH REPORT (HUL) FMCG SECTOR INDIA OUTLOOK The prospering white collar class Indian populace, just as the country area, present a tremendous potential for this division. The FMCG segment in India is at present, the fourth biggest area with a complete market size in overabundance of USD 13 billion starting at 2012. This part is required to develop to a USD 33 billion industry by 2015 and to a challenging USD 100 billion constantly 2025. This part is portrayed by solid MNC nearness and a settled conveyance arrange. In India the simple accessibility of crude materials just as modest work makes it a perfect goal for this sector.There is likewise exceptional rivalry between the sorted out and sloppy fragments and the battle to keep operational costs low. Difficulties TO FMCG SECTOR * Increasing pace of swelling, which is probably going to prompt greater expense of crude materials. * The normalization of bundling standards that is probably going to be executed by the Government by Jan 2013 is relied upon to expand cost of refreshments, grains, eatable oil, cleanser, flour, salt, circulated air through beverages and mineral water. * Steadily rising fuel costs, prompting expanded dispersion costs. The present lull in the economy may bring down interest of FMCG items, especially in the excellent area, prompting decreased volumes. * The declining estimation of rupee against different monetary forms may diminish edges of numerous organizations, as Marico, Godrej Consumer Products, Colgate, Dabur, and so forth who import crude materials. HIGH GROWTH DRIVING FACTOR * Increasing pace of urbanization, expected to see significant development in coming years. * Rise in expendable livelihoods, bringing about premium brands having quicker development and more profound infiltration. * Innovative and more grounded channels of dissemination to the rustic portion, prompting further infiltration into this fragment. Increment in rustic non-farming salary and advantages from government assistance programs. * Investment in securities exchanges of FMCG organizations, which are relied upon to develop continually. This division will keep on considering development to be it relies upon an ever-expanding interior market for utilization, and interest for these products stays pretty much consistent, regardless of downturn or swelling. Henceforth this part will develop, however it may not be a smooth development way, because of the current overall financial stoppage, rising expansion and fall of the rupee.This segment will see great development over the long haul and employing will keep on staying hearty DEMAND FOR FMCG SECTOR Confidence of shopper item producers is melting away as a delayedâ monsoonâ and waiting shortcoming in the economy take steps to curb income development for the segment in the following two quarters. A few advertisers, including Dabur, Marico, Godrej Consumer Products Ltd (GCPL), ITC and Emami, dread weight on premium items and rustic interest †two significant development drivers †in the coming a very long time as supported highâ inflationâ and a hold-up in rainstorm could provoke purchasers to fix tote strings. While the very good quality, super-premium fragment doesn't get affected by swelling, request in the mass premium section could contract if in general financial feeling doesn't improve,† said Sunil Duggal, CEO ofDabur India, the creator of Real squeezes and Vatika cleanser. ABOUT HUL is the market head in Indian customer items with nearness in more than 20 buyer classes, for example, cleansers, tea, cleansers and shampoos among others with more than 700 million Indian buyers utilizing its items. Seventeen of HUL’s brands highlighted in the ACNielsen Brand Equity rundown of 100 Most Trusted Brands Annual Survey (2011).The organization likewise happens to have the most noteworthy number of brands in this rundown, with six brands including in the best 15 rundown. The orga nization has a circulation channel of 6. 3 million outlets and possesses 35 significant Indian brands. Its brands incorporate LABOR COST IN INDIA IS THE LOWEST AMONG THE EMERGING ASIAN COUNTRIES HUL RATIOS RATIO| 2012| 2011| 2010| 2009| 2008| Current Ratio| 0. 8954| 0. 9000| 0. 81268| 0. 9834| 0. 65823| Quick Ratio| 0. 4978| 0. 4711| 0. 48604| 0. 5436| 0. 27253| Cash Flow Liquidity ratio| 0. 6038| 0. 5519| 0. 80573| 0. 6679| 0. 38392| Average Collection Period| 13. 343| 17. 560| 14. 0918| 10. 01| 12. 2710| Days Inventory Held| 48. 957| 59. 526| 53. 1215| 51. 365| 60. 4530| Days Payable Outstanding| 73. 481| 81. 979| 104. 886| 66. 724| 87. 8556| Account Receivable turnover| 27. 355| 20. 785| 25. 9014| 36. 494| 29. 7448| Accounts Payable Turnover| 3. 6017| 3. 0947| 2. 43856| 3. 9712| 3. 01573| Inventory Turnover| 5. 4059| 4. 2619| 4. 81485| 5. 1589| 4. 38272| Fixed resources turnover| 10. 36| 9. 01| 8. 01| 12. 34| 8. 87| Total Assets Turnover| 4. 9807| 5. 4970| 6. 59332| 7. 9313| 8. 5 5871| Debt Ratio| 0| 0. 00402| 0. 1683| 0. 06321| LONG TERM DEBT TO CAPITAL EMPLOYED| 0| 0. 00402| 0. 683| 0. 06321| gross benefit ratio| 16. 449| 40. 107| 41. 4842| 49. 423| 51. 688| Operating Profit Ratio| 16. 456| 15. 911| 16. 8758| 15. 909| 18. 0540| Net Profit Ratio| 11. 947| 11. 520| 12. 2033| 12. 268| 13. 8754| Return on Investments| 59. 509| 63. 326| 80. 4618| 97. 307| 118. 755| Return on Equity| 76. 068| 84. 339| 81. 1040| 117. 42| 127. 232| Cash Return on Assets| 0. 4351| 0. 5281| 1. 29341| 0. 7963| 1. 07195| Price to Earning| 18. 569| 26. 227| 30. 0113| 37. 728| 56. 8245| Peer examination s. no. | Name | Market capitalisation| Sales turnover| Net benefit | Total assets| 1| GODREJ| 22933. 3| 2980. 08| 604. 39| 2761. 43| 2| DABUR| 22448. 83| 3759. 33| 463. 24| 1576. 54| 3| MARICO| 13361. 56| 2970. 30| 336. 58| 1677. 27| 4| EMAMI| 9101. 40| 1389. 82| 256. 81| 804. 23| 5| P&G| 8103. 50| 1297. 41| 181. 29| 600. 62| 6| GILLETTE| 7130. 13| 1232. 90| 75. 73| 600. 33| 7| JYOTH Y LABS| 2860. 82| 662. 97| 83. 52| 1226. 42| 8| BAJAJ CORP. | 2926. 40| 473. 31| 120. 09| 427. 86| 9| HUL| 118139| 22116. 37| 2691. 40| 3512. 93| BALANCE SHEET OF HUL| â€â€â€â€â€â€- in Rs. Cr. â€â€â€â€â€â€- | Mar '12| Mar '11| Mar '10| Mar '09| Dec '07| | 12 mths| 12 mths| 12 mths| 15 mths| 12 mths| | |Sources Of Funds| | Total Share Capital| 216. 15| 215. 95| 218. 17| 217. 99| | Equity Share Capital| 216. 15| 215. 95| 218. 17| 217. 99| 217. 75| | Share Application Money| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| | Preference Share Capital| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| | Reserves| 3,296. 11| 2,417. 30| 2,364. 68| 1,842. 85| 217. 75| | Revaluation Reserves| 0. 67| 0. 67| 0. 67| 0. 67| 0. 67| | Networth| 3,512. 93| 2,633. 92| 2,583. 52| 2,061. 51| 1,439. 24| | Secured Loans| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 144. 65| 25. 2| | Unsecured Loans| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 277. 30| 63. 01| | Total Debt| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 421. 95| 88. 53| | Total Liabilities| 3,512. 93| 2,633. 92| 2,583. 52| 2,483. 46| 1,527. 77| | Mar '12| Mar '11| Mar '10| Mar '09| Dec '07| | 12 mths| 12 mths| 12 mths| 15 mths| 12 mths| | Application Of Funds| | Gross Block| 3,574. 67| 3,759. 62| 3,581. 96| 2,881. 73| 2,669. 08| | Less: Accum. Depreciation| 1,416. 88| 1,590. 46| 1,419. 85| 1,274. 95| 1,146. 57| | Net Block| 2,157. 79| 2,169. 16| 2,162. 11| 1,606. 8| 1,522. 51| | Capital Work in Progress| 210. 89| 299. 08| 273. 96| 472. 07| 185. 64| | Investments| 2,438. 21| 1,260. 68| 1,264. 08| 332. 62| 1,440. 81| | Inventories| 2,516. 65| 2,811. 26| 2,179. 93| 2,528. 86| 1,953. 60| | Sundry Debtors| 678. 99| 943. 20| 678. 44| 536. 89| 443. 37| | Cash and Bank Balance| 510. 05| 281. 91| 231. 37| 190. 59| 200. 11| | Total Current Assets| 3,705. 69| 4,036. 37| 3,089. 74| 3,256. 34| 2,597. 08| | Loans and Advances| 1,314. 72| 1,099. 72| 1,068. 31| 1,196. 95| 1,083. 28| | Fixed Deposits| 1,319. 9| 1,358. 10| 1,660. 84| 1,586. 76| 0. 75| | Total CA, Loans and Advances| 6,340. 40| 6,494. 19| 5,818. 89| 6,040. 05| 3,681. 11| | Deffered Credit| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| | Current Liabilities| 5,688. 44| 6,264. 21| 5,493. 97| 4,440. 08| 4,028. 41| | Provisions| 1,945. 92| 1,324. 98| 1,441. 55| 1,527. 98| 1,273. 90| | Total CL and Provisions| 7,634. 36| 7,589. 19| 6,935. 52| 5,968. 06| 5,302. 31| | Net Current Assets| - 1,293. 96| - 1,095. 00| - 1,116. 63| 71. 99| - 1,621. 20| | Miscellaneous Expenses| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 00| 0. 0| 0. 00| | Total Assets| 3,512. 93| 2,633. 92| 2,583. 52| 2,483. 46| 1,527. 76| | CAPITAL ASSET PRICING METHOD 1. REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN = Risk free return +? (Hazard premium) Ri = Rf + ? (Rm †Rf) = 8. 1 +0. 27 (6. 5) Ri = 9. 855% 2. ZERO GROWTH MODEL Where, profit = Rs. 7. 5 Po = d/r = 7. 5/9. 855% Po = 76. 10 3. Steady GROWTH MODEL (GORDON MODEL) PO = DO(1+g) r-g d1 r-g Where , development rate = recorded development of normal profit paid of most recent 5 years g = 6. 75% = 7. 5(1+6. 75%) (9. 855-6. 75)% PO = 258. 266 4. Understood d evelopment P0 = d1 R †g Where, po = 534. 25, d1=8. 006 , r= 9. 855% P0 = d1 R †g 534. 25= 8. 006/(0. 098-g) G= 0. 083 or 8. 3% Cash stream model Ri = 9. 855% Calculation of development pace of incomes =(1. 69*1. 51*. 54)1/3 - 1 = . 1128 =11. 28% Assuming the irregular development of (11. 8%) is for a long time, and after this the organization has returned to typical development direction of 6% development rate Cash stream from activity = 2884. 24 crore Vc = 2884. 24(1+. 1128)/(1+. 09) + 2884. 24(1+. 1128)2/(1+. 09)2 + 2884. 24(1+. 1128)2(1+. 06) (9. 855-6)% (1. 09)2 Vc = 88605 Vp = 0 Vd = 1000 Therefore, Ve = Vc †Vp †Vd = 88605-1000 = 85605 crore Total no. of offers extraordinary = 216. 15 crore Po = Ve Total no. of offers extraordinary = 85605/216. 15 Po = 396. 04 MULTIPLE MODEL p/e of company=32. 95 p/e of industry = 44. 0 cost of company’s share = 534. 25 income at the company’s stock = cost of co. stock p/e of the co. =5

Friday, August 21, 2020

Are There Any Good Essay Samples Online?

Are There Any Good Essay Samples Online?Emba Essay samples are designed by professionals to ensure that you can write a compelling and insightful essay. If you want to improve your writing skills, you may want to look into writing your own essay instead of hiring an editor to do it for you.By reading through some of the best essay samples, you will be able to see how easy it is to find a variety of essays on the Internet. The goal is to help you create essays that will capture the attention of readers. Once you have learned the basics, you can begin applying what you learn in your own writing.Before you begin your search for essay samples, you should know exactly what kind of essay you want to write. You may want to write an academic essay, a formal speech, or a business proposal. The number of people that will be reading your essay, the length of time it will be on the page, and the topic will determine the type of essay you want to write.By taking a look at some of the best essay s amples, you will be able to determine what your target audience will find interesting. A professional writer will give you tips and advice on how to craft an essay that is well-written, yet informative. You will be able to get an idea about the steps that you will need to take in order to produce the type of essay that will be pleasing to the reader.In addition to learning how to write a successful essay by reading some of the best essay samples, you will also learn how to create a powerful introduction. This should provide the reader with the necessary information that they need to be able to understand the rest of the essay. Many times, the introduction will be your first introduction to the rest of the essay.By taking a look at some of the best essay samples, you will be able to learn how to format the essays. Once you have learned this skill, you will be able to create all types of essay styles. A professional writer will be able to make use of all the different styles to help y ou write the best essay possible.You may want to know more about what you can expect to write if you choose to write an academic essay. For example, a lot of the topics will revolve around the topic of your dissertation. A professional writer will be able to include a thorough introduction to the topic and present all of the relevant information that you will need to know in order to complete the project.By taking a look at some of the best essay samples, you will be able to write a persuasive essay. Once you have learned the basics, you will be able to begin to use these skills to write your own essay. You can also get a lot of practice in writing your essays before you have to submit it for approval.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Spandrels Of San Marco And The Panglossian Paradigm

In â€Å" The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A critique of the Adapationist Programme† by Gould and Lewontin the article discusses about natural selection not being the overall general reason for the evolution of species. Gould and Lewontin provide a pluralistic approach of how species are evolved rather than basing on natural selection. Therefore, these scientists used the central dome of St Mark’s Cathedral in Venice to represent the other possible explanations of the evolution in species. Most importantly, Gould and Lewontin used spandrels and other findings as an analogy to parallelize the evolution of organisms as an unintentional byproduct of the species. Gould and Lewontin introduce spandrels as triangular spaces between the arches and dome. The spandrel is designed in such a way that is exclusively fitted towards its space. Also, the spandrel shows severe complexity in intricate designs as well. If one were to look at the detailed design on the spandrel; he or she would question how the spandrel was able to stay in its shape and form without losing its detail. This is when Gould and Lewontin declare that the spandrel is just a simple byproduct of the mounting dome. There was no adaptation of the spandrel to form its shape and size. The reason why the spandrel is in its form is because it was an unintentional product of the mounting dome. Gould and Lewontin used the spandrel as a metaphor towards biology to explain that species are able to haveShow MoreRelatedGoulds Five Adaptationist Programme Essay677 Words   |  3 Pages The Five Adaptationist Programmes The spandrels of San Marco and Panglossioan paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme, a paper by S.J. Gould and R.C. Lewontin, portrays five of the alternative adaptationist programmes which are the most common view of evolutionary reasoning to date. The first adaptationist programme Gould mentions in the paper is a population that does not undergo selection or adaptation. In this type of population it is possible for the alleles to differentiateRead MoreGould and Lewontins Essay The Spandrels of San Marco1052 Words   |  5 Pagesassimilated the bigotry views that it hoped to fend off. The scientific community, their ideas and perceptions, account for the accepted scientific beliefs rather than the perpetual, and actual scientific theories. Gould and Lewontins essay The Spandrels of San Marco is about an adaptationist programme and how it has taken over evolutionary belief in England and the United States during the past forty years. The people believe in the power of natural selection as a key mechanism of evolution. The writers

Friday, May 15, 2020

Junot Diaz s View On Young Adult And Dating - 1413 Words

In Junot Diaz, How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or a Halfie. Junot Diaz shows how society really is. Diaz’s explains in his short story different stereotypes on young adult and dating. He provides great examples, on how young men act such as Malcriado. This relates to society when a mother or father talk’s to their son before they go on a date. â€Å"Shower, comb your hair, dress appropriately. Sit on the couch and watch TV†(Diaz 235). These are strong step-by-step instructions for a dating guide. This is a pretty generic saying that most moms will say to there son’s before they go out on a date. Although, young adults attempt to prove their maturity to society by portraying moral acts in person then when alone they commit†¦show more content†¦In real world perspective, young adults go through the same situations. Young men will get attached to young females because it is something fairly new to them. Young adults are learning date etiquette from their parents then they can choose what they do with it. Our parents are very knowledgeable and have been in certain situations that they do not want to see their children in. But, young adults still choose to not respect their parents and will do what they want to do sometimes leading to consequences. This is a growing dilemma with young adults in this generation. Young adults, show an exceedingly amount of disrespect to the elders. For instance, when a young man doesn t hold the door open for someone it show’s ignorance and disrespect. â€Å"You’ve already told them that you’re feeling too sick to go to Union City to visit that Tà ­a who likes to squeeze your nuts. (He’s gotten big, she’ll say.) And even though your moms knows you ain’t sick you stuck to your story until finally she said, Go ahead and stay malcriado†. (Diaz 235). This shows, how complicated and disrespectful you can be towards your elders. Lying to them should never need to occur. Honesty is the key to respect. If, there is no respect it is simply disrespect. Why cause disrespect to your elders? That is very ignorant and disrespectful. Disrespect is showing a lack of respect or courtesy for example, a deeply disrespectful attitude toward women. A guy should always want to be a gentleman. It

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Worksheets For A Special Education Classroom - 995 Words

The children in today’s education system are constantly submersed in an abundance of worksheets. While many see the piles of worksheets as helpful and beneficial, others see them as â€Å"busy work.† From my experience in a special education classroom, I have noticed that the overuse of worksheets becomes useless almost immediately. The use of worksheets in education can be beneficial to the child when used sparingly, when they are not similarly formatted, and used as a formative check. Worksheets are effective assessments, but only when they are used sparingly. The majority of worksheets are formatted the same way, where your answers are confined to tiny blanks or bubbles. It should be fairly easy for teachers who are minimally involved to avoid the overuse of worksheets. Instead of using them, teachers can let their students’ minds wander, allowing them to create their own assignments and grow intellectually (Ransom Manning, 2013, p. 188-189). According to Lesley (2003), a worksheet-driven curriculum is highly controlling and has the risk of violating the students’ learning potential (p. 451). Worksheets have the potential to be appealing to students, so long as they are not overbearing. During my field experience, each day was filled with worksheets the students had to fill out by a certain time. The abundance of worksheets seemed to be caused by the teacher being absent, but when she returned, the endless amounts did not decrease. What may have be en fun, partner work at theShow MoreRelatedThe Positive Effect Of Contingent Teacher Praise Essay861 Words   |  4 Pages(1990); Gable et al. (1983); Nowacek et al. (1990); and Ysseldyke et al. (1984). These reports indicate that expressions of verbal disapproval by teachers are more likely to occur than verbal approval especially from Grade three and above. 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Lesson Plan The lesson plan was planned for teaching math skills which included sorting, graphing, and various addition problems. The student was given a bag of skittles, a graphing worksheet, and a sorting worksheet. Step by step instruction was given. The following is how it was explained to the student. First you will open your bag of skittles. The teacher then asked if he had it open and then she proceeded by instructing him to sort all the candiesRead MoreTechnology And High Tech Technology1197 Words   |  5 Pagesclaiming that they cannot live without it. When parents hear of â€Å"technology† in the classroom, they immediately think of electronics. However, technology is separated into two classifications in the classroom: low-tech learning technology and high-tech learning technology. Low-tech technology has been used for many decades in school and include: pencil grips, highlighters, flashcards, and additional outlined worksheets and concept maps. High-tech assistive technology refers to items such as computersRead MoreSocial Studies Should be Integrated into Education Essay591 Words   |  3 Pagesbelieve that social studies should be integrated into a special education classroom. I have been in several special education classrooms in different schools, and I have never seen social studies being taught. I could have been there just when they were not teaching it, but it would have been nice to see it at some point. I want to make sure and include this in my class schedule. It might not be the same material that the general education classrooms are being taught, but I believe it is important toRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed Our Student s Education1675 Words   |  7 Pagesitself to be detrimental to our student’s education and learning. Students who it tends to impact the most though are those in special education classrooms. Where a mainstream student may be utilizing his or her iPad for fun or educational games, special education students are using them to help learn easier. There are many great arguments against iPad use in the classroom such as the fact that students may not have internet or iPad access outside of the classroom, may not be abl e to handle an iPad appropriatelyRead MoreQuestions On The Lesson Plan Essay1276 Words   |  6 Pageswill be able to understand what they are reading through illustrations, predictions and discussions. Teacher will continue to revise and discuss predictions as the story continues. Academic Language related to the lesson – For the special education TPA it is not academic language but language and communication that is the additional area. To introduce early readers to vocabulary words that are verbs with the –ing endings to help them understand when the Action is taking place. 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An evidence-based special education professional practice is a strategy or intervention designed for use by special educators and intended to support the education of individuals with exceptional learning needs. Evidence-based instruction is reliable, trustworthy, and valid record that indicates when that program or set of practices is used;Read MoreMichelle Is A Second Grade Student At An Inclusive Classroom878 Words   |  4 PagesInclusive classroom. Her twin is also in the classroom and is a special education student as well. Michelle has an IEP and a significant speech and language delay. She is also an ENL student. For math and writing classes, an ENL teacher pushes in. Michelle is pulled out for speech therapy sessions. Michelle was exposed to the following teaching strategies: Teacher-mediated Environmental Arrangements- Most of Michelle’s lessons are presented from a U-shaped table headed by the special education

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hiroshima and Nagasaki free essay sample

It sheds the light of the past upon the present, thus helping one to understand oneself, by making one acquainted with other peoples. Also, as one studies the rise and fall of empires and civilizations, the lessons of the past help one to avoid the pitfalls of the present. History makes one’s life richer by giving meaning to the books one reads, the cities one visits or the music one hears. It also broadens one’s outlook by presenting to one an admixture of races, a mingling of cultures and a spectacular drama of the making of the modern world out of diverse forces. Another importance of history is that it enables one to grasp one’s relationship with one’s past. For example if one wonders why the U. S. flag has 48 stars or why Great Britain follows monarchy, one has to turn to history for an answer. History is of immense value to social scientists engaged in research. Thus the political scientist doing research on the parliamentary form of government, has to draw his materials from the treasure trove of history. It preserves the traditional and cultural values of a nation, and serves as a beacon light, guiding society in confronting various crises. History is indeed, as Allen Nerins puts it, a bridge connecting the past with the present and pointing the road to the future. The knowledge of past events provide you guidance and direction. examples of how the Spanish American War, the U. S. military experience in Cuba, and Muslim counter insurgency in the Philippines shed light on our world today. if history is not studied and understood, we will be setting ourselves up to repeat the mistakes of the past. There are several examples of how similar conflicts in the past have a common theme for today. The study of history makes a person more knowledgeable . That knowledge can always make a difference today for a better future . The study of historical decisions can show both the correct and incorrect path to take. It should at least give the decision maker an understanding of how past decisions played out. This is why it’s important for us to take time out of their busy schedules to study history. HIROSHIMA amp; NAGASAKI On August 6, 1945, at 9:15 AM Tokyo time, an American B-29 warplane, the Enola Gay piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, dropped a uranium atomic bomb, code named Little Boy’—a reference to Roosevelt on Hiroshima, Japans seventh largest city. he bomb was 3 m. (9 ft. 9 in. ) long, used uranium 235, had the power of 12. 5 kilotons of TNT, and weighed 3,600 kg. (nearly 8,000 lb. ). In minutes, half of the city vanished. According to U. S. estimates, 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or missing, 140,000 were injuried many more were made homeless as a result of the bomb. Deadly radiation reached over 100,000. In the blast, thousands died instantly. The city was unbelievably devastated. Of its 90,000 buildings, over 60,000 were demolished. Another bomb was assembled at Tinian Island on August 6. On August 8, Field Order No. 7 issued from the 20th Air Force Headquarters on Guam called for its use the following day on either Kokura, the primary target, or Nagasaki, the secondary target. Three days after Hiroshima, the B-29 bomber, Bockscar piloted by Sweeney, reached the sky over Kokura on the morning of August 9 but abandoned the primary target because of smoke cover and changed course for Nagasaki. Surveys disclosed that severe radiation injury occurred to all exposed persons within a radius of one kilometer. Serious to moderate radiation injury occurred between one and two kilometers. Persons within two to four kilometers suffered slight radiation effects. What the bomb had produced was concentrated chaos, from which no city or nation could easily or rapidly recover. No significant repair or reconstruction was accomplished until months later. On September 2, the Japanese government, which had seemed ready to fight to the death, surrendered unconditionally. In the early morning hours of August 6, 1945, an American B-29 warplane, named the  Enola Gay, rolled down the runway of an American airbase on the Pacific island of Tinian. It flew for almost six hours, encountering no resistance from the ground. At 8:15 a. m. local time, the plane dropped its payload over the clear skies of Hiroshima, a Japanese city with an estimated population of 255,000. The atomic bomb that the plane was carrying, â€Å"Little Boy,† detonated some 600 meters above the city center, killing 80,000 people—30 percent of the population—immediately or within hours of the explosion. Three days later, on August 9, a similar plane carrying a more powerful weapon left Tinian but had more difficulty reaching its intended destination. After encountering fire from the ground, and finding its target city Kokura covered in clouds, it flew on to its second target, Nagasaki, a heavily industrialized city of about 270,000. Due to the specific topological features of Nagasaki, and to the fact that the bomb missed the city center, the effects were slightly less devastating. An estimated 40,000 people were killed outright. Hiroshima Hiroshima, Japanese city, situated some 8M km. (500 mi. ) from Tokyo, on which the first operational atomic bomb was dropped at 0815 on 6 August 1945. Nicknamed Little Boy’—a reference to Roosevelt—the bomb was 3 m. (9 ft. 9 in. ) long, used uranium 235, had the power of 12. 5 kilotons of TNT, and weighed 3,600 kg. (nearly 8,000 lb. ). Nagasaki, Japanese city on which the second operational atomic bomb was dropped. Nicknamed Fat Man (a reference to Churchill), the bomb, which used plutonium 239, was dropped by parachute at 1102 on 9 August by an American B29 bomber from the Pacific island of Tinian. It measured just under 3. 5 m. (11 ft. 4 in. ) in length, had the power of 22 kilotons of TNT, and weighed 4,050 kg. (nearly 9,000 lb. . The aircrafts first target was the city of Kokura, now part of Kitakyushu, but as it was covered by heavy cloud the aircraft was diverted to its second target, Nagasaki. Among the 270,000 people present when the bomb was dropped, about 2,500 were labour conscripts from Korea and 350 were prisoners-of-war. About 73,884 were killed and 74,909 injured, with the affected survivors suff ering the same long-term catastrophic results of radiation and mental trauma as at Hiroshima. Much discussion by a Target committee had preceded the decision to make Hiroshima the first target. To be able to assess the damage it caused, and to impress the Japanese government with the destruction it was expected to wreak, it was necessary to choose a city that had not yet been touched by the USAAF’s strategic air offensives. Kyoto was also considered but its unrivalled beauty ruled it out. The bomb was delivered by a US B29 bomber, nicknamed Enola Gay, from the Pacific island of Tinian. Dropped by parachute it exploded about 580 m. (1,885 ft. ) above the ground, and at the point of detonation the temperature probably reached several million degrees centigrade. Almost immediately a fireball was created from which were emitted radiation and heat rays, and severe shock waves were created by the blast. A one-ton (900 kg. ) conventional bomb would have destroyed all wooden structures within a radius of 40 m. (130 ft. ). Little Boy destroyed them all within a radius of 2 km. (1. 2 mi. ) of the hypocentre (the point above which it exploded). The terrain was flat and congested with administrative and commercial buildings, and the radius of destruction for the many reinforced concrete structures was about 500 m. 1,625 ft. ), though only the top stories of earthquake-resistant buildings were damage or destroyed. Altogether an area of 13 sq. Ikm. (5 sq. mi. ) was reduced to ashes and of the 76,000 buildings in the city 62. 9% were destroyed and only 8% escaped damage. Within 1. 2 km. (. 74 mi. ) of the hypocentre there was probably a 50% death rate of the 350,000 people estimated to have been in Hiroshima at the time. Hiroshima City Survey Section es timated a figure of 118,661 civilian deaths up to 10 August 1946 (see Table). Add to this a probable figure of 20,000 deaths of military personnel and the current figure—for people are still dying as a result of the radiation received—is in the region of 140,000. Among those who survived, the long-term effects of radiation sickness, genetic and chromosome injury, and mental trauma have been catastrophic, even unborn children having been stunted in growth and sometimes mentally retarded. Committee on Damage by Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,  Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings  (London, 1981). Nagasaki Unlike Hiroshima, Nagasaki lies in a series of narrow valleys bordered by mountains in the east and west. The bomb exploded about 500 m. (1,625 ft. ) above the ground and directly beneath it (the hypocentre) was a suburb of schools, factories, and private houses. The radius of destruction for reinforced concrete buildings was 750 m. (2,437 ft. ), greater than at Hiroshima where the blast caused by the bomb was more vertical. But because of the topography, and despite the Nagasaki bomb being more powerful, only about 6. sq. km. (2. 6 sq. mi. ) of Nagasaki was reduced to ashes compared with 13 sq. km. (5 sq. mi. ) of Hiroshima. Of the 51,000 buildings in the city 22. 7% were completely destroyed or burt, with 36. 1 % escaping any damage. Committee on Damage by Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and  Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings  (London, 1981). Effects Within the first few months after the bombing, it is estimated by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (a cooperative Japan-U. S. rganization) that between 90,000 and 166,000 people died in Hiroshima, while another 60,000 to 80,000 died in Nagasaki. These deaths include those who died due to the force and excruciating heat of the explosions as well as deaths caused by acute radiation exposure. While these numbers represent imprecise estimates—due to the fact that it is unknown how many forced laborers and military personnel were present in the city and that in many cases entire families were killed, leaving no one to report the deaths—statistics regarding the long term effects have been even more difficult to determine. Though exposure to radiation can cause acute, near-immediate effect by killing cells and directly damaging tissue, radiation can also have effects that happen on longer scale, such as cancer, by causing mutations in the DNA of living cells. Mutations can occur spontaneously, but a mutagen like radiation increases the likelihood of a mutation taking place. In theory, ionizing radiation can deposit molecular-bond-breaking energy, which can damage DNA, thus altering genes. In response, a cell will either repair the gene, die, or retain the mutation. In order for a mutation to cause cancer, it is believed that a series of mutations must accumulate in a given cell and its progeny. For this reason, it may be many years after exposure before an increase in the incident rate of cancer due to radiation becomes evident. Among the long-term effects suffered by atomic bomb survivors, the most deadly was leukemia. An increase in leukemia appeared about two years after the attacks and peaked around four to six years later. Children represent the population that was affected most severely. Attributable risk—the percent difference in the incidence rate of a condition between an exposed population and a comparable unexposed one — reveals how great of an effect radiation had on leukemia incidence. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation estimates the attributable risk of leukemia to be 46% for bomb victims. Nearly seventy years after the bombings occurred, most of the generation that was alive during the attack has passed away. Now much more attention has turned to the children born to the survivors. Regarding individuals who had been exposed to radiation before birth (in utero), studies, such as  one led by E. Nakashima in 1994, have shown that exposure led to increases in small head size and mental disability, as well as impairment in physical growth. Persons exposed  in utero  were also found to have a lower increase in cancer rate than survivors who were children at the time of the attack. One of the most immediate concerns after the attacks regarding the future of both Hiroshima and Nagasaki was what health effects the radiation would have on the children of survivors conceived after the bombings. So far, no radiation-related excess of disease has been seen in the children of survivors, though more time is needed to be able to know for certain. In general, though, the healthfulness of the new generations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide confidence that, like the oleander flower, the cities will continue to rise from their past destruction. Today, the liveliness of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki serves as a reminder not only of the human ability to regenerate, but also of the extent to which fear and misinformation can lead to incorrect expectations. After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, many thought that any city targeted by an atomic weapon would become a nuclear wasteland. While the immediate aftermath of the atomic bombings was horrendous and nightmarish, with innumerable  casualties, the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not allow their cities to become the sort of wasteland that some thought was inevitable. This experience of can serve as  lesson in the present  when much of the public and even some governments have reacted radically to the accident in Fukashima–in the midst of tragedy, there remains hope for the future The blast of the uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima had the explosive equivalent of about 13,000 tons of TNT. The nuclear reaction in the bomb generated temperatures of several million degrees Centigrade. At the hypocenter, the point on the ground 600 meters below the explosion, temperatures reached 3,000 to 4,000 degrees Centigrade, two times the melting point of iron. The intense flash of heat and light, which incinerated everything within a kilometer-and-a-half of the hypocenter, was followed by an enormous shock wave that destroyed most buildings within two kilometers. The Hiroshima bomb was targeted at the Aioi Bridge, which it missed by about 250 meters. According to one account, the bomb exploded instead directly above a hospital headed by a Dr. Shima: â€Å"The Shima hospital and all its patients were vaporized. Eighty-eight percent of the people within a radius of 1,500 feet died instantly or later on that day. Most others within the circle perished in the following weeks or months. †Ã‚  [1] Those close to the hypocenter were instantly incinerated without leaving behind a trace, except for perhaps a shadow on a wall or street where their bodies had partially protected the surface from the initial flash of heat. One author notes that those closest to the blast â€Å"passed from being to nothingness faster than any human physiology can register. †Ã‚  [2] Those slightly farther from the center of the explosion did not die immediately, but suffered from severe third-degree burns all over their bodies, in particular to any areas that were exposed directly to the heat. They suffered a period of intense pain before dying of their injuries. Those who witnessed the explosion and survived invariably describe these victims in the most horrific terms. The decision by the administration of President Harry Truman to use atomic weapons against Japan was motivated by political and strategic considerations. Above all, the use of the bomb was meant to establish the undisputed hegemonic position of the United States in the post-war period. These motivations were also the basic driving force behind the American intervention in the war itself. The Second World War has long been presented to the American people as a â€Å"Good War,† a war for democracy against fascism and tyranny. While it was no doubt true that millions of Americans saw the war in terms of a fight against Hitlerite fascism and Japanese militarism, the aims of those who led them to war were altogether different. The American ruling class entered the Second World War in order to secure its global interests. While the political character of the bourgeois democratic regime in the United States was vastly different than that of its fascist adversaries, the nature of the war aims of the United States were no less imperialistic. In the final analysis, the utter ruthlessness with which the United States sought to secure its objectives—including the use of the atomic bomb—flowed from this essential fact. The American government hoped that by using the bomb it would shift the balance of forces in its growing conflict with the Soviet Union. However, the American monopoly of the bomb was short-lived. The Soviet Union responded to the bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by rapidly increasing the amount of resources devoted to its own atomic bomb project. In 1949, the Soviet Union carried out its first atomic weapon test. Sections of the US ruling elite and military establishment still hoped that they might be able to use the bomb in actual military situations. In 1950, Truman threatened to use nuclear weapons against the Chinese during the Korean War, and General Douglas McArthur urged the government to authorize the military to drop a number of bombs along the Korean border with Manchuria. These proposals were eventually rejected for fear that the use of the bomb might provoke a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union. With the development of the much more powerful hydrogen bomb, first tested in late 1952, the US hoped to renew its nuclear advantage. The Republican Eisenhower administration came into office in 1953 pledging a more aggressive policy against the Soviet Union, including the â€Å"rollback† of Soviet control over Eastern Europe. In January 1954, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles gave a speech in which he stated that the US would â€Å"deter aggression† by depending â€Å"primarily upon a great capacity to retaliate, instantly, by means and at places of our own choosing. This pledge of â€Å"massive retaliation† was generally interpreted as a threat to use nuclear weapons in response to a local war such as the Korean War or the war that later developed in Vietnam. However, this nuclear advantage was again eliminated in August 1953, when the USSR tested its first hydrogen bomb. The two countries rapidly developed a capacity that created conditions of â€Å"mutu ally assured destruction† in the event of a nuclear war. Throughout this period and the following decades, a battle raged within the political establishment over policy in relation to the Soviet Union and the atom bomb. Even with the threat of nuclear war, there continued to exist a substantial section of the American ruling class that was unwilling to tolerate any constraints on American military power. The option of engaging in nuclear war was never off the table for any post-Hiroshima/Nagasaki administration, Democratic or Republican. What Truman’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson called the â€Å"master card† was always there in the background ready to be pulled out if need be. In 1962, the Kennedy administration nearly initiated a nuclear war with the Soviet Union over the Cuban missile crisis. As the economic situation deteriorated in the 1970s, those who advocated a more aggressive orientation toward the Soviet Union began to gain in prominence. This started under the Democratic Party administration of Jimmy Carter and received a boost during the Reagan administration in the 1980s. Reagan oversaw a renewed arms buildup and also sought to gain an offensive nuclear superiority by developing a defensive missile shield (the so-called â€Å"Star Wars† program), something that the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 had been designed to prevent. A successful defensive shield would allow the US to strike with nuclear weapons first, since it could shoot down any retaliatory action. Since the self-destruction of the Soviet Union in 1991, the American ruling class has reached a new consensus based upon preemptive war and the unilateral assertion of American interests through military force. Fewer treaties, more bombs The post-Soviet eruption of American militarism has assumed an especially malignant form during the presidency of George W. Bush. Since coming into power, the Bush administration has developed a two-pronged strategy to expand American military capacity. On the one hand, it has rejected or undermined any international agreement or treaty that places boundaries on what the United States can or cannot do militarily. On the other hand, it has taken steps to develop its military technology, including its nuclear technology, to prepare the way for the use of this technology in future wars. In 1999, the Republican-dominated US Senate went out of its way to reject the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which had previously been signed by the Clinton administration. In 2001, Bush announced that he would not seek Senate approval again, and instead would look for a way to â€Å"bury† the treaty. The treaty would ban the testing of new nuclear weapons, which the Bush administration opposes because it is planning on developing new nuclear weapons that it will need to test. In December 2001, Bush announced that the US would unilaterally withdraw from the ABM Treaty in order to allow it to renew the â€Å"Star Wars† project, now called National Missile Defense. The development of a NMD system is still a priority of the administration, and is part of its drive to achieve military domination of space. Like the Reagan administration program, a missile defense system would open up the way for offensive nuclear strikes against countries such as China or Russia. During an international review of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) earlier this year, the Bush administration announced a position that was aimed at undermining the foundation of the agreement. In exchange for a promise not to acquire nuclear weapons, the treaty guarantees non-nuclear powers the right to develop non-military nuclear technology. The treaty also includes a pledge from the nuclear powers to gradually eliminate their nuclear stockpiles. The new Bush administration position, however, is to deny states that the US determines to be â€Å"rogue states,† such as Iran, the right to develop nuclear energy programs. At the same time, far from eliminating its own nuclear stockpiles, the US has taken steps to modernize its existing weapons and develop new weapons for offensive use. Indeed, in the run-up to the conference, which ended without an agreement, the Bush administration explicitly insisted on its right to use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear power. Over the past decade, the US government has developed a policy of offensive nuclear weapon use, rejecting the Cold War conception that nuclear weapons would be intended primarily as a deterrent. A Nuclear Posture Review in 1997 during the Clinton administration reportedly took the first steps toward targeting countries such as North Korea, China and Iran. This policy was made explicit in another review, leaked to the press in 2002, in which the Pentagon announced that â€Å"the old process [of nuclear arms control] is incompatible with the flexibility US planning and forces now require. † It explicitly hreatened a host of countries by targeting them for potential nuclear attack. It also provided very general guidelines for the future use of nuclear weapons, declaring that these weapons may be used â€Å"against targets able to withstand nonnuclear attack† or â€Å"in the event of surprising military developments. † Last summer, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld i ssued an â€Å"Interim Global Strike Order† that reportedly includes a first strike nuclear option against a country such as Iran or North Korea. There were also nuclear weapons options in the planning guidelines for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Bush administration has taken steps toward the development of new â€Å"bunker-busting† nuclear weapons specifically designed for use in combat situations. Existing stockpiles have been modernized, and according to a  New York Times  article from February 7, 2005, â€Å"American scientists have begun designing a new generation of nuclear arms meant to be sturdier and more reliable and to have longer lives† than the old weapon stockpiles. The US repeatedly issues threats against countries over their alleged development of nuclear weapons and other â€Å"weapons of mass destruction. The most recent target has been Iran, which the US has threatened with military attack if it does not abandon its nuclear energy program. All these threats are meant to justify future US invasions, in which the use of nuclear weapons by the United States is by no means excluded. Through the policy of preemptive war, the US has arrogated for itself the right to attack any country that it deems to be a threat, or declares might be a threat sometime in the future. There is no part of the world in which the United States does not have an interest. It has sought to progressively expand its influence in Central Asia and the former Soviet Union through the war in Afghanistan and political intervention in countries such as Ukraine. It is seeking to dominate the Middle East through the war in Iraq and the threat of war in Iran. It is expanding its activities in Africa and has made repeated threats against North Korea and China as part of its efforts to secure its influence in East Asia. Under these conditions, there are innumerable potential scenarios in which a war will erupt leading to the use of nuclear weapons. This includes not only invasions of countries such as Iran; an American war against a smaller power could easily spark a broader conflict—with China, Russia or even the powers of Europe, all of which have nuclear weapons themselves. The catastrophe that befell Hiroshima and Nagasaki will never be forgotten. Their fate will stand forever as testimony to the bestiality of imperialism. Against the backdrop of the renewed eruption of American militarism, the events of August 1945 remind us of the alternatives that confront mankind—world revolution or world war, socialism or barbarism. The perceived threat from weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has become one of the most important issues on foreign policy and national security agendas. In security and foreign policy analyses, weapons of mass destruction is a term that generally encompasses nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, with radiological weapons occasionally included. The traditional arms control approach no longer monopolizes the international legal strategy against WMD. This development suggests that the need for international law in connection with the WMD threat may be higher now than in previous historical periods. The dangers and uncertainties confronting the use of international law in this new WMD environment may also be historically unprecedented, as U. S. interpretations of international law to justify military action against Iraq and the worsening crisis with North Korea both demonstrate. Time to get smarter about stupidity If we want to avoid repeating past mistakes, we must acknowledge that even the brightest people can do monumentally daft things A  weapon of mass destruction  (WMD) is a  weapon  that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans (and other life forms) and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e. . buildings), natural structures (e. g. mountains), or the  biosphere  in general. Nuclear weapons The only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war is the  United States, which  dropped two atomic bombs  on the Japanese cities of  Hiroshima  andNagasaki  during World War II. There are eight countries that have declared the y possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight are  China,  France,  India,  North Korea,  Pakistan,  Russia, the  United Kingdom, and theUnited States. Israel  is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status. Iran  is suspected by western countries of seeking nuclear weapons, a claim that it denies. While the truth is unknown, the November 2007 NIE on Iran stated that Iran halted its nuclear weapons program in the fall of 2003. [37] South Africa  developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and  Ukraine  inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the  Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation. Countries with access to nuclear weapons through  nuclear sharing  agreements include Belgium,  Germany, Italy, the  Netherlands, and  Turkey. North Korea  has claimed to have developed and tested nuclear devices. Although outside sources have been unable to unequivocally support the states claims, North Korea has officially been identified to have nuclear weapons. - Media coverage of WMD  [edit] In 2004, the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report[48]  examining the media’s coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods:  nuclear weapons tests  by India and Pakistan in May 1998; the US announcement of evidence of a  North Korean nuclear weapons program  in October 2002; and revelations about  Irans nuclear program  in May 2003. The CISSM report notes that poor coverage resulted less from political  bias among the media  than from tired journalistic conventions. The report’s major findings were that: 1. Most media outlets represented WMD as a monolithic menace, failing to adequately distinguish between weapons programs and actual weapons or to address the real differences among chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons. 2. Most journalists accepted the  Bush administration’s  formulation of the â€Å"War on Terror† as a campaign against WMD, in contrast to coverage during the  Clinton  era, when many journalists made careful distinctions between acts of terrorism and the acquisition and use of WMD. 3. Many stories tenographically reported the incumbent administration’s perspective on WMD, giving too little critical examination of the way officials framed the events, issues, threats, and policy options. 4. Too few stories proffered alternative perspectives to official line, a problem exacerbated by the  journalistic  prioritizing of breaking-news stories and the â€Å"inverted pyramidâ₠¬  style of storytelling. In a separate study published in 2005,[49]  a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people’s  memory  regarding the  search for WMD in Iraq  during the 2003 Iraq War. The study focused on populations in two  coalition  countries (Australia and USA) and one opposed to the war (Germany). Results showed that US citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting  false memory  that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. This led to three conclusions: 1. The repetition of tentative news stories, even if they are subsequently disconfirmed, can assist in the creation of false memories in a substantial proportion of people. 2. Once information is published, its subsequent correction does not alter peoples beliefs unless they are suspicious about the motives underlying the events the news stories are about. 3. When people ignore corrections, they do so irrespective of how certain they are that the corrections occurred. A poll conducted between June and September 2003 asked people whether they thought evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS. In 2006 Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq,[51]  based upon unclassified portions of a report by the  National Ground Intelligence Center. Quoting from the report Senator  Rick Santorum  said Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent. According to David Kay, who appeared before the US House Armed Services Committee to discuss these badly corroded munitions, they were leftovers, many years old, improperly stored or destroyed by the Iraqis. 52]  Charles Duelfer agreed, stating on NPRs  Talk of the Nation: When I was running the ISG – the Iraq Survey Group – we had a couple of them that had been turned in to these IEDs, the improvised explosive devices. But they are local hazards. They are not a major, you know, weapon of mass destruction. [53] Later, wikileaks would show that these kind of WMDs continued to be found a s the Iraqi occupation continued. [54] Many news agencies, including Fox News, reported the conclusions of the  CIA  that, based upon the investigation of the  Iraq Survey Group, WMDs are yet to be found in Iraq.